New documentary is more marketing pitch than fact

Our Beloved Family:
As a physician, I understand the crucial role diet plays in restoring and maintaining health. Much of this depends on consuming the right nutrients from the right sources, in the proper amounts and combinations, as well as our ability to absorb them. Using food as medicine is a large part of my practice, and I regularly advise patients on nutrition when it supports their healing or when I see them making food choices that I know will harm their health in the future.

Lately, many of my patients have shared that they’ve chosen to become vegans after seeing the recent documentary, The Game Changers, and as a healthcare professional I’ve found it necessary to speak out. The film features former Ultimate Fighter Championship (UFC) athlete, James Wilks, traveling around the world and interviewing various athletes and “experts” regarding the “truth about meat, protein, and strength”. Since every person interviewed is either a vegan or financially invested in the vegan industry, it comes as no surprise that animal products are demonized and veganism is promoted as the optimal diet.

Selling Veganism

Suspicious Sources

While certain plant-based diets are good for cleansing or particular healing regimens, I have never advocated them as a way of life for many reasons. I’ll cover some of those here. Suffice it to say that not all “scientific” research is created equal. More important than any study is the organization that funded it. Very often medical studies are funded by corporations that seek to benefit from the outcomes of those studies. Processed food manufacturers fund studies that “find” their products or ingredients they use are healthy and safe so we’ll buy more of them. Pharmaceutical companies fund research that demonizes cholesterol so they can sell more statins, cholesterol lowering drugs. Just one of the studies The Game Changers repeatedly references claims meat-eating causes inflammation and that Hass avocado can mitigate the reaction. These results are dubious at best because the study is “supported by the Hass Avocado Board”.1 This goes on all the time in respected journals, so it’s vital to consider the source of the information.

When it comes to the source of The Game Changers, we have to look to the producers and its experts for neutrality and credibility. Unfortunately, executive producers, James Cameron and his wife, Suzy, are owners of Verdient Foods, Inc., a company that makes pea protein supplements and in which they’ve invested $140 million to “…accelerate the growth of the vegan protein market”.2 Experts in the film such as Dr. Dean Ornish, Dr. Aaron Spitz, Dr. Robert Vogel, and Dr. Caldwell Esselstyn all have books, CDs, DVDs, and other business interests that promote plant-based diets for various reasons. Arnold Schwarzenegger also makes an odd expert because he didn’t build his classic physique on a vegan diet but animal protein and…steroids, which he has admitted to taking.3

Playing Fast and Loose with Facts

Because of these significant conflicts of interest and credibility issues, the “science” of The Game Changers has been excoriated across the food science and fitness industry. In an article titled, “This new documentary says meat will kill you. Here’s why it’s wrong”, Men’s Health magazine wrote:

“Except that The Game Changers presents only one side of the facts, often via controversial sources, grand extrapolations from small studies, and statements that are flat-out misleading.”

“And The Game Changers is filled with research. Studies flash upon the screen at a wild rate—sometimes three or four in a row. Medical experts offer long explanations of scientific conclusions in lab-coat speak. The amount of data is daunting, with the implication being: Look at all the science! How can veganism be wrong?! The problem is that the study findings are often twisted and presented to the viewer without giving them a full understanding of the research.”4

Protein Problems

In one instance where the film actually uses a peer-reviewed study, it claims that the source of protein for building muscle mass and strength is “irrelevant” as long as the right amino acids are present. This is oversimplification and incorrect. The body requires a range of amino acids, nine of which are called “essential” because our bodies cannot make them, therefore we must get them from our diet. Meat, dairy and eggs contain all the essential amino acids in the proper amounts and so are considered complete proteins. There are no plant sources for complete protein and therefore vegans must combine foods like beans and rice that together would provide a full amino acid profile, but it’s not that simple.

It’s not about what’s on the plate but what we digest and absorb.

Plant proteins aren’t as bioavailable to humans and have lower digestibility. Popular sources for vegan protein are peas and soy that contain high levels of enzyme inhibitors that prevent us from breaking down their proteins properly. Soy contains trypsin that blocks protein absorption. Plants dont want to be eaten, so they defend themselves with toxins in this way. So even properly combined plant foods will have different digestibility between them leading to inevitable amino acid and protein deficiencies. It’s not about what’s on the plate but what we digest and absorb. Because of this problem, young people on a vegan diet require 35% more protein per day.5

It’s also not enough for the right amino acids to be present in food; they must be at the right levels for us to receive the full benefit, as well. A food’s protein is only available to us at the rate of its lowest amino acid. For example at 79% of the required level, tryptophan is the rate limiting amino acid in beef. In soy, it’s methionine at 41%. The soy-based Impossible Whopper sold by Burger King is said to have 25g of protein compared to its beef Whopper at 28g. However, when we multiply the limiting amino rates of each burger by the protein content (0.41 x 25 / 0.79 x 28) it’s revealed that the soy burger provides just 10g of usable protein, while the beef provides 22g.6

The film also neglects to mention that the study it cites claiming athletes can perform just as well on plant proteins as animal sources contradicts itself with the admission, “…as a group, vegetarians have lower mean muscle creatine concentrations than do omnivores, and this may affect supramaximal exercise performance.” It also states that female athletes consuming plant protein are “…at increased risk for non-anemic iron deficiency, which may limit endurance performance.” The authors also admit that historically, “…well-controlled, long-term studies assessing the effects of vegetarian diets on athletes have not been conducted”.7

Bottom line: the proof for these protein claims just isn’t there. Early in my career while living in Florida, I served as a physician for the Florida Boxing Commission back when the UFC cage fighting was called Shin Do Kumate, and I can tell you that none of those high-performance athletes were on a vegan diet.

Selling Veganism

Maligning Milk

The Game Changers also relies on studies with tiny samples and then extrapolates the results to make sweeping generalizations, such as when it claims cow’s milk increases estrogen and lowers testosterone. The problem with this is that the study used to make the assumption included just 18 people, only 7 of which were men.8 It’s also not mentioned that it was testosterone secretions that were lowered (not overall testosterone), and only temporarily.

Another important distinction is that the study used milk from pregnant cows and yet, according to the content breakdown of commercial dairy farmers, the majority of milk comes from cows that are not pregnant.9 Why? It’s because like all mammals, cows only produce milk just a few days prior to and after birth. A cow will continue to produce milk for more than two years without another calf as long as it’s milked regularly. It’s the birth and udder stimulation that generate milk production, not pregnancy. It’s the three months after birth when a cow’s milk production is the highest that provides the vast majority of milk in stores.

Commercial dairy cows do become pregnant again, but their milk production immediately starts to decline with most of them giving progressively reduced amounts for the first six months when estrogen levels are low. It’s only in the last trimester when the cow’s estrogen levels are high that it goes dry and doesn’t produce any milk because all its strength is being reserved for the birth.

So how much estrogen is in milk? Skim milk (8.oz) contains between 0.1-0.7ng, while whole milk contains 0.3-1.9ng. A nanogram (ng) is one billionth of a gram. That means the highest level of estrogen found in milk is less than two billionths of a gram.10 All plants and animals produce hormones. To put this in perspective, there are 225ng of estrogen in potatoes and 2,000ng in cabbage.11

Research has shown that the same infinitesimal amounts of estrogen found in milk that humans consume from pregnant cows had no effect whatsoever on the circulating levels of estrogen or genitals of creatures as small as mice. It’s only when the amount of estrogen was increased to 1,000 times that found in milk that any changes were observed.12 This makes sense because all steroid hormones are broken down as they pass through the liver.13 Bodybuilders have to inject their steroids instead of taking them orally to bypass the liver in order for them to affect their physiology. It’s only when we’re consuming large amounts of hormones and we overwhelm the system that we get into trouble. This is the case with soy, which does have an estrogenic impact on the body and is a staple of vegan foods and diets.

Decades of research has shown soy not only creates hormonal havoc in the body, but increases risk of cancer and dementia.

Soy: Estrogen Overload

Vegans consume large amounts of soy in the form of protein supplements, veggie burgers, soy milk, tofu, and now meat substitute products. For the record, soy protein has never received the Generally Regarded As Safe (GRAS) rating for human consumption by the Food and Drug Administration. It does, however, have a limited GRAS rating for use as a cardboard binder.14 This is because soy poses many dangers to human health and in particular hormone balance. It’s exceedingly high in phytoestrogen (isoflavones) that’s so similar to human estrogen that soybeans are used to make bio-identical estrogen for hormone replacement therapy. It’s also classified as a goitrogen because of its ability to disrupt thyroid function. It’s not a coincidence that Hashimoto’s thyroiditis was discovered in Japan where they eat lots of soy.

So, how much estrogen is in soy compared to beef? According to analysis, the new soy-based Impossible Whopper at Burger King contains 44mg of estrogen. The chain’s regular beef Whopper contains 2.5ng. At 1 million ng per mg, the soy-based Whopper has 44 million ng or 18 million times more estrogen than the beef Whopper.15 A 3oz serving of beef contains 1.3-1.9ng of estrogen, which would make the average 14oz steak contain a maximum of 8.8ng. By comparison, 3oz of soy milk contains 11,250ng of estrogen, and the same amount of soybean oil contains 170,000ng.16 The average birth control pill contains 35mcg of estrogen.17 There are 1,000 mcg per 1 mg. At 44mg of estrogen, the Impossible Whopper contains 44,000mcg of estrogen or over 1,257 times more than a birth control pill. It’s because of these high levels of estrogen that decades of research has shown soy not only creates hormonal havoc in the body, but increases risk of cancer and dementia.

  • Women taking 45mg of soy isoflavones per day experienced significant decreases in thyroid function that did not return to normal until three months after they stopped consuming soy. Dosage was the equivalent of one cup of soy milk per day.18
  • Because birth control pills are basically estrogen, soy has a powerful contraceptive effect. Research has shown consuming soy isoflavones causes complete infertility in cows, sheep,19 hamsters,20 and other rodents21 including damage to the endometrium and cervical mucosa that make it impossible to conceive.22
  • A Harvard University study found men who ate soy foods such as miso soup, tofu, and soy ice cream had 41 million fewer sperm per mL than men who did not.23 This drastic decrease was the result of consuming just ½ serving of soy per day or the equivalent of 1 cup of soy milk every other day.
  • Babies fed soy formula were found to have isoflavone levels 13,000 to 22,000 times higher than biological estradiol levels in babies fed cow’s milk formula.24 The New Zealand Journal of Medicine found that based on bodyweight, babies fed soy formula receive the same amount of estrogen as five birth control pills per day.25
  • Infant boys fed soy formula experience physical problems that include undescended testicles, inguinal hernias and hypospadias, a malformation of the penis where the urethra opening is on the underside rather than at the tip.26 Early soy exposure has also been linked to low sperm count and motility, inability to support conception and low weight of reproductive organs in adulthood.27
  • Girls fed soy formula experience accelerated sexual maturation with breast development and pubic hair seen in 14.7% of Caucasian girls and 50% of African-American girls by age 8.28 Malformations of the reproductive tract are observed in 50% of them.29
  • Women taking soy isoflavone supplements experienced cell proliferation and thickening in the uterine lining. Researchers called isoflavones “potent drugs” and questioned the “long-term safety with regard to phytoestrogens and the endometrium”.30
  • Isoflavones were found to cause cell proliferation in epithelial tissue,31 instigate the malignant cycle32 in breast cells, and interrupt the menstrual cycle.33
  • Accelerated brain aging was found in Japanese Americans consuming two or more servings of tofu per week. Soy consumption in midlife leads to lower cognitive function later in life with higher rates of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease.34 Results confirmed earlier research that found higher circulating levels of estrogen were a primary factor in cognitive decline in post-menopausal women.35
Selling Veganism

As if that isn’t enough, over 90% of soy grown in the U.S. is GMO36 and heavily sprayed with glyphosate, which has been linked to birth defects.37 Other research has linked GMOs to kidney and liver damage,38 dysregulation39 of the immune system, and the ability to shed genetic fragments that enter human DNA and reprogram40 organ function, “silence” other genes,41 and transfer to gut bacteria where they continue to function.42

Cholesterol Clarity

Saturated fat and cholesterol are regularly demonized by the vegan industry with claims of heart disease in hopes of scaring us into buying more industrial processed vegetable oils like canola oil, corn oil, sunflower oil, safflower oil, soybean oil, and others. In fact, it’s the opposite that’s true; saturated animal fat and cholesterol protect us from heart disease, and processed vegetable oils greatly increase our risk.

Unlike saturated fat, vegetable oils are composed of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that are highly unstable and generate enormous amounts of free radicals when exposed to the heat of processing, cooking or even the air. These oils come from seeds and grains that must be put under enormous amounts of pressure that generates high heat which renders them rancid before they are even bottled, which is why they must be deodorized first. They also contain very high levels of omega-6 fatty acids which are pro-inflammatory when not balanced properly with omega-3 fatty acids, of which most of these oils have none.43 This makes these oils highly inflammatory in the body, and inflammation is a major factor in all chronic disease, including heart disease.

When this inflammation occurs inside our arteries, the PUFA free radicals must be neutralized. That’s when cholesterol comes to the rescue to place a protective coating on the delicate inner lining of the arteries, not to kill us but to prevent further damage. Cholesterol has taken all the blame for arterial buildup when it’s really a protective reaction to poor eating habits. Just for the record, the breakdown of arterial plaque shows 26% is saturated and 74% is unsaturated with the latter amount being overwhelmingly polyunsaturated.44

In one study two groups ate the exact same meals with the only difference being one group had their saturated fat replaced with corn oil. The corn oil group saw a 23mg/dl decrease in serum cholesterol and died at much higher rates of cardiovascular disease and other chronic diseases. Researchers stated, “…under the circumstances of this trial, corn oil cannot be recommended in the treatment of ischaemic heart disease. It is most unlikely to be beneficial and is possibly harmful.”45

Saturated fat is vital for the transport and absorption of fat soluble vitamins like A and D, which are only found in animal fat, as well as E and K. The brain is 60% saturated fat, and not one neuron could fire without it.

Another controlled study replacing saturated fat with vegetable oils saw nine people in the low cholesterol / low fat group die of heart attacks in less than a year, while none died from the saturated fat group. By the end, 26 of the low cholesterol subjects died from heart attacks compared to just six from the saturated fat group.46

The ongoing Framingham Heart Study is the largest and longest medical study in history. Data has shown that for every 1mg/dl decrease in cholesterol, participants experienced a 14% increase in death from cardiovascular disease and an 11% increase in death from other chronic diseases.47 After the first 44 years of data, researches declared, “In Framingham, Mass., the more saturated fat one ate, the more cholesterol one ate, the more calories one ate, the lower the person’s serum cholesterol…We found that the people who ate the most cholesterol, ate the most saturated fat, ate the most calories, weighed the least and were the most physically active.”48

Saturated fat is vital for the transport and absorption of fat soluble vitamins like A and D, which are only found in animal fat, as well as E and K. The brain is 60% saturated fat, and not one neuron could fire without it. The membrane of all 1 trillion cells in the body is made of saturated fat, cholesterol, and protein. Cholesterol has antioxidant properties, is the base of all sex hormones, maintains the integrity of the intestinal lining, and serves thousands of other vital functions.

Unfortunately, phytosterols, cholesterol-like molecules found in small amounts in plants and high levels in vegetable oils cannot perform the functions of cholesterol because they actually lower cholesterol in the body and increase the, “…occurrence of major coronary events” and cardiovascular heart disease (CHD), while interrupting cholesterol synthesis and contributing to atherosclerosis. An overview of 16 studies concluded, “…there is no evidence that plant sterols reduce the risk of CHD and much evidence that they are detrimental.”49

The Fat / Cancer Fallacy

Saturated fat and cholesterol intake is also inversely related to cancer. Decades of research finally led the American Institute for Cancer Research and the World Cancer Research Fund to state that there was no “convincing” or even “probable” evidence to suggest a connection between saturated fat consumption and cancer risk.50 The American Cancer Society agreed by stating, “…there is little evidence that the total amount of fat consumed increases cancer risk.”51

A prime example is Harvard University’s ongoing Nurse’s Health Study begun in 1976 tracking 89,000 nurses that has confirmed52 in multiple yearly reports53 that the more saturated fat women eat, the lower their breast cancer risk falls. For every 5% of simple carbohydrates a woman replaces with saturated fat in her diet, she experiences a 9% decrease in breast cancer risk. The bottom line after decades of research is that saturated animal fat and cholesterol are vital to human health and protect us from heart disease and cancer.

Selling Veganism

In addition to chronic disease resulting from anti-nutrients and nutrient deficiencies in their diets, vegans and vegetarians also put themselves at greater risk for infectious disease with lowered immunity.54 Research comparing vegetarians to omnivores found the plant-based diet group showed “significant differences” in immune function with much lower counts of white blood cells, neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils, lymphocytes, and basophils. Older vegetarians exhibited a “significantly suppressed” immune response of T-lymphocytes to mitogens. In other words, vegans and vegetarians put themselves at much higher risk for everything from colds to cancer.

Bait and Switch

Other ways The Game Changers unfairly demonizes meat is by presenting studies that use processed meat (deli meats, hot dogs, etc.) full of preservatives like nitrates and nitrites that have been linked to cancer.55 The film also compares lab panels between vegan and non-vegan athletes and makes unfounded conclusions without taking into account differences in workout routines, sleep patterns, alcohol consumption, pre-existing health conditions, smoking, or genetics. Any trained athlete will acknowledge that fitness is about far more than just diet. Nothing is controlled and everything is assumed in the film. The Game Changers is little more than a 90-minute commercial to sell veganism and its related products to athletes.

I urge everyone to do their own research and not take this film at face value. Vegetarianism and veganism have long been known to deteriorate health through significant nutrient deficiencies and increase disease such as anemia,56 osteoporosis,57 cancer, heart disease,58,59 and others. Health organizations around the world such as the European Society of Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition,60 German Nutrition Society,61 and the Royal Belgian Academy of Medicine62 have spoken out against vegetarian and vegan diets for children. If these diets are so damaging for young people, how can they be good for adults? Researchers published in the British Medical Journal called them “cult diets”.63

Balance is Best

Life is about balance, and that includes diet. Any part of our lives that is not balanced will surely harm our health over time. The fact that a vegan diet requires lifelong supplementation with things like B12, iron, and pea or soy protein powders is proof that it’s unsustainable and unnatural. Our ancient human ancestors weren’t going to their local health food store for pea protein, a tub of tofu, and a bottle of B12. Nor were they constantly spiking their insulin levels with lots of legumes, potatoes, rice, and grains before the dawn of agriculture. When locked in ice ages for long periods of time when no carbohydrates of any kind were available, they lived entirely on meat and animal fat. Consuming saturated animal fat is what gave humans the largest brain-to-body-size ratio, making us the most intelligent creatures on earth. The Inuit people of the Arctic still consume such a diet today and suffer virtually no heart disease or cancer, unless they convert to modern foods and a high carb diet.64 Studies of human corprolites (fossilized feces) from 300,000 to 50,000 years ago show no plant matter of any kind.65

The mainstream media continues to push veganism hard on the public with virtually no attention given to opposing experts or the information I’ve shared here.

The point is that while science has recognized essential fatty acids (fats) and essential amino acids (proteins) that we cannot live without consuming, there is no such thing as an essential carbohydrate. This is why in all of human history there has never been a vegan civilization. Meat, animal products, and saturated fat must be part of any diet, about 20%, if long-term health is the goal.

Media Maneuvers

In the meantime, the mainstream media continues to push veganism hard on the public with virtually no attention given to opposing experts or the information I’ve shared here. I was briefly hopeful there might be some balance given to the issue when Joe Rogan, commentator for the UFC turned national podcaster, invited Chris Kresser, MS, LAc, on his show last November to discuss the problems with the “science” in The Game Changers. Kresser is a respected clinician and educator in the field of functional medicine and co-director of the California Center for Functional Medicine. Kresser’s episode66 in which he totally exposed the film’s sleight-of-hand science drew a huge audience, while Rogan who is a former athlete himself and has never been vegan was astonished by the real facts.

Barely two weeks later, Rogan welcomed Kresser back on the show, only this time with James Wilks from The Game Changers after it was said Rogan “realized Kresser’s views were one-sided”.67 After a debate68 that lasted nearly four hours where Wilks allegedly debunked Kresser’s science, Rogan took to Instagram to state that Wilks had “knocked it out of the park” and defended The Game Changers “spectacularly”. In fact, Rogan was now so convinced by the vegan philosophy in the film that he was “considering taking the original breakdown of the film offline.” He was referring to Kresser’s solo interview. Upon that announcement, Rogan received a very public commendation69 from Arnold Schwarzenegger, who also happens to be one of the producers of The Game Changers.

There are a few things to note here. If Rogan was really concerned about being one-sided on the issue, why even consider deleting Kresser’s solo interview? Rogan’s show is very popular, and I would assume he’s booked months in advance. How could a debate with James Wilks be so easily scheduled and only days after Kresser’s solo episode? Why the overly enthusiastic and very public change of heart on veganism when a large percentage of viewers were unconvinced and didn’t agree Wilks had “knocked it out of the park”? Rogan’s audience is huge and mostly athletic males between 20 and 35, the exact target demographic of The Game Changers who could likely be influenced by a change of heart from someone they respect like Rogan. After his about face on veganism, Rogan is publicly praised by another fitness icon, Arnold Schwarzenegger, who has a stake in the film.

Is it all coincidental? Maybe, but the larger point is to look to history, not Hollywood or the media for the right diet advice. I highly recommend The Vegetarian Myth by Lierre Keith, The Great Cholesterol Con by Dr. Malcolm Kendrick, and the blog post, A Vegan No More for further reading.

Blessings of Love, Light, and Clarity in the Month Ahead,
Dr. Habib Sadeghi

SOURCES

  1. Li, Z et al. (2013). Hass avocado modulates postprandial vascular reactivity and postprandial inflammatory responses to a hamburger meal in healthy volunteers. Food & Function, 4(3), 384-391, doi: 10.1039/c2fo30226h.
  2. Chiorando, Maria, “James Cameron’s Company Joins $140 Million Drive to Create Vegan Protein”, PlantBasedNews.com, (Dec. 13, 2018), https://www.plantbasednews.org/news/james-camerons-140-million-drive-create-vegan-protein.
  3. “Arnold, No Regrets About Steroids”, CBS News, (Feb. 26, 2005), https://www.cbsnews.com/news/arnold-no-regrets-about-steroids/.
  4. Kita, Paul, “This new documentary says meat will kill you. Here’s why it’s wrong”, Men’s Health, (Sept. 16, 2019), https://www.menshealth.com/nutrition/a29067926/the-game-changers-movie-fact-check/
  5. Amit, M. (2010). Vegetarian diets in children and adolescents. Paediatrics and Child Health, 15(5), 303-308, PMID: 21532796
  6. Stangle, James, “Impossible burgers are made of what?”, (Dec. 20, 2019), Tri-State Livestock News, https://www.tsln.com/news/stangle-impossible-burgers-are-made-of-what/.
  7. Barr, S. Rideout, C. (2004). Nutritional considerations for vegetarian athletes. Nutrition. , 20(7-8), 696-703, doi: 10.1016/j.nut.2004.04.015.
  8. Maryuama, K et al. (2010). Exposure to exogenous estrogen through intake of commercial milk produced from pregnant cows. Pediatrics International, 52(1), 33-38, doi: 10.1111/j.1442-200X.2009.02890.x.
  9. “Does Milk Come From Pregnant Cows?”, Dairy Moos, (Dec. 17, 2017), https://www.dairymoos.com/does-milk-come-from-pregnant-cows/.
  10. “Hormones and Milk: Scientific Status Report”, Dairy Research Institute, National Dairy Council, (2012), https://thedairyalliance.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/09/Hormones-and-Milk-ScientificStatusReport.pdf.
  11. Treffer, Bruce, “Worried About Hormones?”, UNL Beefwatch, (Dec. 1, 2013), https://newsroom.unl.edu/announce/beef/2846/15997.
  12. Grgurevic, N et al. (2016). Effect of dietary estrogens from bovine milk on blood hormone levels and reproductive organs in mice. Journal of Dairy Science, 99(8), 6005-6013, doi: 10.3168/jds.2015-10610.
  13. Pond, S. Tozer, T. (1984). First-pass elimination. Basic concepts and clinical consequences. Clinical Pharmcokinetics, 9(1), 1-25, doi: 10.2165/00003088-198409010-00001.
  14. Fallon, S. (n.d.). Tragedy and Hype: The third international soy symposium – Part II. Retrieved from http://www.tldp.com/issue/11_00/soy.htm
  15. Stangle, James, “Impossible burgers are made of what?”, (Dec. 20, 2019), Tri-State Livestock News, https://www.tsln.com/news/stangle-impossible-burgers-are-made-of-what/.
  16. Treffer, Bruce, “Worried About Hormones?”, UNL Beefwatch, (Dec. 1, 2013), https://newsroom.unl.edu/announce/beef/2846/15997.
  17. “Low-Dose and Ultra-Low-Dose Birth Control Pills”, WebMD, https://www.webmd.com/sex/birth-control/low-dose-birth-control-pills#1.
  18. Cassidy, A., et al. (1994). Biological Effects of a Diet of Soy Protein Rich in Isoflavones on the Menstrual Cycle of Premenopausal Women, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 60, 333-340, doi: 10.1093/ajcn/60.3.333.
  19. Adams, N. (1995). Detection of the effect of phytoestrogens on sheep and cattle. Journal of Animal Science, 73, 1509-1515, doi: 10.2527/1995.7351509x.
  20. Smith, Jeffrey. Genetically modified soy linked to sterility, infant mortality in hamsters. 2010, August, 8. The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/jeffrey-smith/genetically-modified-soy_b_544575.html.
  21. Chapin, R., & Stevens, J. (1996). Endrocrine modulation of reproduction. Fundamental and Applied Toxicology, 29, 1-17, doi: 10.1006/faat.1996.0001.
  22. Murkies, A., & Wilcox, G. (1998). Phytoestrogens. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism , 83, 297-303.
  23. Chavarro, J et al. (2008). Soy food and isoflavone intake in relation to semen quality parameters among men from an infertility clinic. Human Reproduction. , 23(11), 2584-2590, doi: 10.1093/humrep/den243.
  24. Setchell, K. (1998). Isoflavone content of infant formulas and the metabolic fate of these early phytoestrogens in early life. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition., 68(6), 1453S-1461S. doi: 10.1093/ajcn/68.6.1453S.
  25. Irvine, C. (1995). The potential adverse effects of soybean phytoestrogens in infant feeding. New Zealand Medical Journal, 318, PMID: 7783996.
  26. Keith, L. (2009). The Vegetarian Myth: Food, justice and sustainability . (1st ed., p. 221). Crescent City, CA: Flashpoint Press.
  27. Goyal, H., & Robateau, A. (2003). Neonatal estrogen exposure of male rats alters reproductive functions at adulthood. Biology of Reproduction, 68(2801), 2091. doi: 10.1095/biolreprod.102.010637.
  28. Herman-Giddns, M. (1997). Secondary sexual characteristics and menses in young girls seen in office practice: A study from the pediatric research in office settings network. Pediatrics, 99(4), 505-512, doi: 10.1542/peds.99.4.505.
  29. Sheehan, D., & Doerge, D. (1998). FDA Scientists Protest Soy Approval. Retrieved from http://dcnutrition.com/news/Detail.CFM?RecordNumber=546.
  30. Unfer, V., & Casini, M. (2004). Endometrial effects of long-term treatment with phytoestrogens: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Fertility and Sterility, 82(1), 145-148, doi: 10.1016/j.fertnstert.2003.11.041
  31. Petrakis, N. (1996). Stimulatory influence of soy protein isolate on breast secretion in pre and postmenopausal women. Cancer, Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 5(10), 785-794, https://cebp.aacrjournals.org/content/5/10/785.
  32. Ibid.
  33. Keith, L. (2009). The Vegetarian Myth: Food, justice and sustainability . (1st ed., p. 221). Crescent City, CA: Flashpoint Press.
  34. While, L. (1996, July). Association of mid-life consmption of tofu with late life cognitive impairmet and dementia: The Honolulu-Asia aging study. Fifth International Conference on Alzheimer’s disease, Osaka, Japan.
  35. Yaffe, Kristine et al. (1998). Serum estrogen levels, cognitive performance, and risk of cognitive decline in older community women. Journal of the American Geriatrics Society. , 46(7), 816-821, doi: 10.1111/j.1532-5415.1998.tb02713.x.
  36. “High Risk Crops & Inputs: Soy”, The Non-GMO Project, https://www.nongmoproject.org/high-risk/soy/.
  37. (2014). Herbicide used in Argentina could cause birth defects. . Latin American Herald Tribune. http://www.laht.com/article.asp?ArticleId=331718&CategoryId=14093.
  38. Spiroux de Vendômois, J. Roullier, F., et al. (2009). A comparison of the effects of three GM corn varieties on mammalian health . International Journal of Biological Sciences. , 5(7), 706-726, doi: 10.7150/ijbs.5.706.
  39. Zhang, L. et al. (2012). Exogenous plant mir168a specifically targets mammalian ldlrap1: Evidence of cross-kingdom regulation by microRNA. Cell Research. , 22, 107-126, doi: 10.1038/cr.2011.158.
  40. Ibid.
  41. Heinemann, J. (2012). Evaluation of risks from creation of novel RNA molecules in genetically engineered wheat plants and recommendations for risk assessment. Centre for Integrated Research and Biosafety. Christchurch, NZ. http://www.inbi.canterbury.ac.nz/Documents/Reports%20and%20others/Heinemann-Report-20120828.pdf.
  42. Netherwood et al . (2004). Assessing the survival of transgenic plant DNA in the human intestinal tract. Nature Biotechnology. 22, 2, doi: 10.1038/nbt9.
  43. Kresser, Chris. (2010, May 8). “How Too Much Omega-6 and Not Enough Omega-3 is Making Us Sick.” https://chriskresser.com/how-too-much-omega-6-and-not-enough-omega-3-is-making-us-sick/.
  44. Felton , C. (1994). Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids and composition of human aortic plaques. The Lancet. , 344(8931), 1195-1196, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(94)90511-8.
  45. Rose, G et al. (1965). Corn oil in treatment of ischaemic heart disease. The British Medical Journal, 245(11), 1531-1533, doi: 10.1136/bmj.1.5449.1531.
  46. Christakis, G. Rinzler, S. (1966). Effect of the anti-coronary club program on coronary heart disease risk factor status. Journal of the American Medical Association, 198(6), 597-604, doi: 10.1001/jama.1966.03110190079022.
  47. Mahmood, S et al. (2014). The framingham heart study and the epidemiology of cardiovascular diseases: a historical perspective. Lancet, 383(9921), 999-1008, doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(13)61752-3.
  48. Castelli, W. (1992). Concerning the possibility of a nut…. Archives of Internal Medicine, 152(7), 1371-1372, doi: 10.1001/archinte.1992.00400190013003.
  49. Harcombe, Z. Baker, J. (2014). Plant sterols lower cholesterol, but increase risk for coronary heart disease. Online Journal of Biological Sciences, 14(3), 167-169, doi: 10.3844/ojbsci.2014.167.169.
  50. Glade, M et al. (1999). Food, nutrition, and the prevention of cancer: a global perspective. American institute for cancer research/world cancer research fund, american institute for cancer research, 1997. Nutrition, 15(6), 523-526, doi: 10.1016/s0899-9007(99)00021-0.
  51. Taubes, G. (2008). Good Calories, Bad Calories: Fats, carbs and the controversial science of diet and health. (1st ed., p. 74.). New York: Anchor Books, Random House. Print.
  52. Willett, W et al. (1987). Dietary fat and the risk of breast cancer. The New England Journal of Medicine, 316, 22-28, dlo: 10.1056/NEJM198701013160105.
  53. Willett, W. (1992). Dietary fat and fiber in relation to risk of breast cancer: An 8-year follow-up. Journal of the American Medical Association, 268(15), 2037-2044, doi: 10.1001/jama.1992.03490150089030.
  54. Neubauerova, E et al. (2007). The effect of vegetarian diet on immune response. Epidemiology, 18(5), S196, doi: 10.1097/01.ede.0000289012.66211.45.
  55. Crowe, W et al. (2019). A review of the in vivo evidence investigating the role of nitrite exposure from processed meat consumption in the development of colorectal cancer. Nutrients, doi: 10.3390/nu11112673.
  56. Mahajani, K. Bhatnagar, V. (2015). Comparative study of prevalence of anaemia in vegetarian and non vegetarian women of Udaipur City, Rajasthan. Journal of Nutrition and Food Sciences, S3(001), 1-6, doi: 10.4172/2155-9600.S3-001.
  57. Smith, A. (2006). Veganism and osteoporosis: a review of the current literature. International Journal of Nursing Practice, 12(5), 302-306, doi: 10.1111/j.1440-172X.2006.00580.x.
  58. Research Gate “Human genome shaped by vegetarian diet increases risk of cancer and heart disease”, (Mach 29, 2016), https://www.researchgate.net/blog/post/human-genome-shaped-by-vegetarian-diet-increases-risk-of-cancer-and-heart-disease.
  59. Kothapalli, K et al. (2016). Positive selection on a regulatory insertion–deletion polymorphism in fads2 influences apparent endogenous synthesis of arachidonic acid. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 33(7), 1726–1739, doi: 10.1093/molbev/msw049.
  60. Fernandez, Colin, “Trendy Vegan Diets Can Wreck a Child’s Health: Nutritionists wars that lack of nutrients can cause irreversible damage to their nervous system,” Daily Mail, (May 10, 2017), https://www.dailymail.co.uk/health/article-4493900/Trendy-vegan-diets-wreck-child-s-health.html
  61. Fuchs, Stephen, “Controversial Report out of Germany Warns against Vegan Lifestyle”, German Pulse, (September 12, 2016), https://www.germanpulse.com/2016/09/12/controversial-report-germany-warns-vegan-lifestyle/.
  62. Academie Royalede Medecinede Belgique, Le Veganisme Proscrit Pour Les Enfants, Femmes Enceintes et Allaitantes, Communique De Presse, (May 12, 2019), https://updlf-asbl.be/assets/uploads/_ARMB_-_Communique_de_presse-_Enfants_vegans.pdf.
  63. Roberts, I et al. (1979). Malnutrition in infants receiving cult diets: a form of child abuse. British Journal of Medicine, 1(6159), 296-298, 10.1136/bmj.1.6159.296.
  64. “The Inuit Paradox—High Protein & Fat, No Fruit/Vegetables and Yet, Lower Heart Disease and Cancer”, IF Life, http://www.theiflife.com/the-inuit-paradox-high-fat-lower-heart-disease-and-cancer/.
  65. Bryant, V. & Williams-Dean, G. (1974). Coprolites of Man. Scientific American, Inc., Retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/83243120/Coprolites-of-Man
  66. Joe Rogan Experience #1389, Chris Kresser Debunks The Game Changers Documentary, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dq4Apc2Xk7Q.
  67. Starostinetskaya, Anna, “Arnold Schwarzenegger Commends Joe Rogan for Changing His Mind About The Game Changers”, VegNews, (Dec. 10, 2019), https://vegnews.com/2019/12/arnold-schwarzenegger-commends-joe-rogan-for-changing-his-mind-about-the-game-changers.
  68. Joe Rogan Experience #1393, James Wilks & Chris Kresser, The Game Changers Debate, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s0zgNY_kqlI.
  69. Magnante, Matthew, “Arnold Schwarzenegger Commends Joe Rogan for His Willingness to Listen and Be Open-Minded”, Fitness Volt, (Dec. 9, 2019), https://fitnessvolt.com/schwarzenegger-joe-rogan/.

Comments

Dr. Sadeghi
Dr. Habib Sadeghi is the founder of Be Hive of Healing, an integrative medical center based in Los Angeles. He specializes in multi-disciplinary treatment for chronic illnesses that include osteopathic, anthroposophical, environmental, psychosomatic, family, and German new medicine, as well as clinical pharmacology. He served as an attending Physician and Clinical Facilitator at UCLA-Santa Monica Medical Center and is currently a Clinical Instructor of Family Medicine at Western University of Health Sciences. He is the author of two books, The Clarity Cleanse: 12 steps to finding renewed energy, spiritual fulfillment and emotional healing, and Within: A spiritual awakening to love & weight loss. Dr. Sadeghi is also a regular contributor to Goop, CNN, BBC News and the Huffington Post, and is the publisher of the health and well-being journal, MegaZEN. Read biography 
Dr. Sadeghi on FacebookDr. Sadeghi on InstagramDr. Sadeghi on Twitter